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Тепловий стрес у дійних корів

В огляді міститься аналіз літературних джерел щодо чинників, які зумовлюють тепловий стрес у дійних корів у період лактації та наслідки їх впливу на виробництво молока. Ознаками та симптомами теплового стресу у корів є зменшення споживання корму та зниження надоїв молока, підвищення частоти дихання та температури тіла, а також погіршення репродуктивної функції. Є також інші проблеми, наприклад, сезонне зростання кількості соматичних клітин у загальному молоці, зібраному з корів. Вага під час народження зменшується у корів, які зазнали впливу теплового стресу впродовж сухостійного періоду. Встановлено, що найбільш критичним є тепло, накопичене від дії прямого сонячного випромінюванням. З’ясовано, що високе споживання корму призводить до збільшення накопичення метаболічного тепла. Це, зі свого боку, вимагає потужних механізмів терморегуляції для підтримання температури тіла в термонейтральній зоні та фізіологічному гомеостазі. Доведено, що тепловий стрес ускладнений тим, що негативно впливає на енергетичну стабільність, а також на обмін води, Натрію, Калію та Хлору. Ступінь плазмового прогестерону може бути підвищеним або зниженим залежно від того, є тепловий стрес гострим чи хронічним. Вода, Натрій, Калій та Хлор є життєво важливими складниками поту, а потовиділення є основним, якщо не найважливішим, механізмом терморегуляції, який використовується для видалення зайвого тепла з тіла. Отже, необхідно розробити стратегії зменшення теплового стресу, щоб дати коровам змогу проявити на повну силу свій генетичний потенціал продуктивності.

Ключові слова: дійні корови, тепловий стрес, механізм теплорегуляції, вода, споживання корму, мінеральні елементи

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